Carlo Maria Martini (1927-2011) was an Italian scholar. Born in Turin, Italy. Ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1952. PhD in Fundamental Theology (1958) from the Pontifical Gregorian University. PhD in Biblical Studies from the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Professor (from 1962) and then rector (from 1969) of the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University (1978-1980). Archbishop of Milan, Italy (1980-2003). Cardinal (from 1983).