Precursors

Robert Henry Charles (1855-1931)

Robert Henry Charles (1855-1931) was a British scholar and theologian at Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. At the turn of the century, Charles emerged as the leading authority in the study of the OT Pseudepigrapha and Jewish apocalypticism and arguably, the most influential British scholar in shaping the nascent field of Second Temple Jewish studies.

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George Foot Moore (1851-1931)

George Foot Moore (1851-1931) was an American Old Testament scholar. Born in West Chester, Pennsylvania on October 15, 1851. Moore graduated from Yale University (1872) and Union Theological Seminary (1877). Ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1878, Moore pastored the Putnam Presbyterian Church in Zanesville, Ohio until 1883 when he left the ministry for an academic career. Hitchcock Professor of ...

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Emil Schürer (1844-1910)

Emil Schürer (1844-1910) was a German scholar. German Protestant scholar and theologian. Born at Augsburg. Professor at Leipzig and Göttingen. Author of the most influential 19th-century comprehensive introduction to the history and literature of Second Temple Judaism. Thanks to his work the study of Judaism “in the time of Jesus” became a standard topic in scholarship.

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Agnes Smith Lewis (1843-1926)

Agnes Smith Lewis (1843-1926) was a British scholar. With her twin sister Margaret Dunlop Gibson, Agnes Smith was a pioneering woman scholar in the field of Semitic Studies. Hers was the discovery of the Codex syrus sinaiticus in the monastery of St. Catherine in 1892.

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Joseph-Ernest Renan (1823-1892)

Joseph-Ernest Renan (1823-1892) was a French scholar of early Christianity, orientalist, philosopher. Professor of Hebrew at College de France from 1862. Wrote many works on the history of ancient Judaism. Hugely popular and influential in his own time. His assertions that the life of Jesus should be written like the life of any other man, and that the Bible could ...

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Isaac Mayer Wise (1819-1900)

Isaac Mayer Wise (1819-1900) was a Czech-born Jewish American scholar, novelist, playright, rabbi and leader of American Reform Judaism, first president of Hebrew Union College in 1875. Was among the first Jewish scholars to deal with Christian origins, including both Christian and Rabbinic origins in his introduction to “The Hebrews’ Second Commonwealth.” Also, was one of the first Jewish writers ...

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) was an American social activist, scholar, writer and suffragist. Stanton is best remembered for organizing in 1843 the Seneca Falls convention at which she first called for women’s right to vote. Raised as a strict Presbyterian, Stanton had learned Greek. In the 1880s she invited female Hebrew and Greek scholars to contribute to the first feminist ...

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Abraham Geiger (1810-1874)

Abraham Geiger (1810-1874) was a Jewish-German scholar, rabbi, and founder of Reform Judaism. His History of Judaism includes a survey of Second Temple Judaism and Christian origins, which presents Jesus as a Pharisee. He was also a pioneer in addressing the issue of the relationships between Judaism and early Islam.

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Hannah Adams (1755-1831)

Hannah Adams (1755-1831) was an American scholar and Christian author. Born in Medfield, MA, in a time in which women had no access to the academia, she learned Latin and Greek from the divinity students who boarded with her father. An independent scholar and largely self-taught, she became a prolific writer, authoring texts in American history, religion and Jewish history. ...

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