Precursors

Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752-1827)

Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (1752-1827) was a German scholar, Protestant theologian of Enlightenment and early Orientalist. Professor of oriental languages at the University of Jena (1775-1788) and Göttingen (1788-1827). Credited as one of the fathers of modern Biblical criticism. Author of the first critical introduction to the Old Testament Apocrypha in 1795.  

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Johann Albert Fabricius (1668-1736)

Johann Albert Fabricius (1668-1736) was a German scholar, and a specialist in Second Temple Studies and OT Pseudepigrapha Studies in particular. Classical Scholar and bibliographer, Johann Albert Fabricius, professor at Heidelberg, devoted his research to the collection of Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Christian antiquities. He was the editor of the first collection of NT Apocrypha and OT Pseudepigrapha.

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Humphrey Prideaux (1648-1724)

Humphrey Prideaux (1648-1724) was a British scholar, clergyman and a specialist in Second Temple Studies and Early Islamic Studies. While his approach to early Islamic studies was heavily apologetic, his work on “intertestamental” Jewish history dominated the field for more than a century with numerous editions and translations in French, Italian, and Germany.

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John Lightfoot (1602-1675)

John Lightfoot (1602-1675) was a British rabbinic scholar, churchman, one of the major contributors to the Walton Polyglot Bible and author of the first comprehensive commentary of New Testament based on Jewish, mostly halakhic, literature.

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Paul Eber (1511-1569)

Paul Eber (1511-1569) was a German scholar, Christian Hebraist and theologian, professor of Old Testament at Wittenberg, and the author of the first scholarly history of the Second Temple period in modern times, following the model of Josephus.

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Theodor Bibliander (1506-1564)

Theodor Bibliander (Theodor Buchmann; 1506-1564) was a Swiss scholar, orientalist, philologist of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, and a specialist in Apocalyptic Studiesand Early Islamic Studies. The father of Biblical research in Switzerland. In his commentaries on Revelation (1549) and 4 Ezra (1553) maintained the identification of Antichrist with the Papacy, yet showed a genuine attempt to extricate himself from ...

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Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) was an Italian scholar and philosopher, and a pioneer in Second Temple Studies. A child-prodigy, Pico was soon fluent in Latin and Greek and was sent to study at the Universities of Florence, Padua, and Paris. In Padua he learned Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic with Elia Del Medigo. A member of the Platonic academy of ...

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